Ethereum bridge

The Namada - Ethereum bridge exists to mint ERC20 tokens on Namada which naturally can be redeemed on Ethereum at a later time. Furthermore, it allows the minting of wrapped tokens on Ethereum backed by escrowed assets on Namada.

The Namada Ethereum bridge system consists of:

  • An Ethereum full node run by each Namada validator, for including relevant Ethereum events into Namada.
  • A set of validity predicates on Namada which roughly implements ICS20 fungible token transfers.
  • A set of Ethereum smart contracts.
  • A relayer for submitting transactions to Ethereum

This basic bridge architecture should provide for almost-Namada consensus security for the bridge and free Ethereum state reads on Namada, plus bidirectional message passing with reasonably low gas costs on the Ethereum side.


On Namada, the validators are full nodes of Ethereum and their stake is also accounting for security of the bridge. If they carry out a forking attack on Namada to steal locked tokens of Ethereum their stake will be slashed on Namada. On the Ethereum side, we will add a limit to the amount of assets that can be locked to limit the damage a forking attack on Namada can do. To make an attack more cumbersome we will also add a limit on how fast wrapped Ethereum assets can be redeemed from Namada. This will not add more security, but rather make the attack more inconvenient.

Ethereum Events Attestation

We want to store events from the smart contracts of our bridge onto Namada. We will include events that have been seen by at least one validator, but will not act on them until they have been seen by at least 2/3 of voting power.

There will be multiple types of events emitted. Validators should ignore improperly formatted events. Raw events from Ethereum are converted to a Rust enum type (EthereumEvent) by Namada validators before being included in vote extensions or stored on chain.

fn main() {
pub enum EthereumEvent {
    // we will have different variants here corresponding to different types
    // of raw events we receive from Ethereum
    // ...

Each event will be stored with a list of the validators that have ever seen it as well as the fraction of total voting power that has ever seen it. Once an event has been seen by 2/3 of voting power, it is locked into a seen state, and acted upon.

There is no adjustment across epoch boundaries - e.g. if an event is seen by 1/3 of voting power in epoch n, then seen by a different 1/3 of voting power in epoch m>n, the event will be considered seen in total. Validators may never vote more than once for a given event.

Minimum confirmations

There will be a protocol-specified minimum number of confirmations that events must reach on the Ethereum chain, before validators can vote to include them on Namada. This minimum number of confirmations will be changeable via governance.

TransferToNamada events may include a custom minimum number of confirmations, that must be at least the protocol-specified minimum number of confirmations.

Validators must not vote to include events that have not met the required number of confirmations. Voting on unconfirmed events is considered a slashable offence.


To make including new events easy, we take the approach of always overwriting the state with the new state rather than applying state diffs. The storage keys involved are:

# all values are Borsh-serialized
/eth_msgs/$msg_hash/body : EthereumEvent
/eth_msgs/$msg_hash/seen_by : Vec<Address>
/eth_msgs/$msg_hash/voting_power: (u64, u64)  # reduced fraction < 1 e.g. (2, 3)
/eth_msgs/$msg_hash/seen: bool

$msg_hash is the SHA256 digest of the Borsh serialization of the relevant EthereumEvent.

Changes to this /eth_msgs storage subspace are only ever made by internal transactions crafted and applied by all nodes based on the aggregate of vote extensions for the last Tendermint round. That is, changes to /eth_msgs happen in block n+1 in a deterministic manner based on the vote extensions of the Tendermint round for block n.

The /eth_msgs storage subspace does not belong to any account and cannot be modified by transactions submitted from outside of the ledger via Tendermint. The storage will be guarded by a special validity predicate - EthSentinel - that is part of the verifier set by default for every transaction, but will be removed by the ledger code for the specific permitted transactions that are allowed to update /eth_msgs.

Including events into storage

For every Namada block proposal, the vote extension of a validator should include the events of the Ethereum blocks they have seen via their full node such that:

  1. The storage value /eth_msgs/$msg_hash/seen_by does not include their address.
  2. It's correctly formatted.
  3. It's reached the required number of confirmations on the Ethereum chain

Each event that a validator is voting to include must be individually signed by them. If the validator is not voting to include any events, they must still provide a signed voted extension indicating this.

The vote extension data field will be a Borsh-serialization of something like the following.

fn main() {
pub struct VoteExtension(Vec<SignedEthEvent>);

/// A struct used by validators to sign that they have seen a particular
/// ethereum event. These are included in vote extensions
#[derive(Debug, Clone, BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize, BorshSchema)]
pub struct SignedEthEvent {
    /// The address of the signing validator
    signer: Address,
    /// The proportion of the total voting power held by the validator
    power: FractionalVotingPower,
    /// The event being signed and the block height at which
    /// it was seen. We include the height as part of enforcing
    /// that a block proposer submits vote extensions from
    /// **the previous round only**
    event: Signed<(EthereumEvent, BlockHeight)>,

These vote extensions will be given to the next block proposer who will aggregate those that it can verify and will inject a protocol transaction (the "vote extensions" transaction).

fn main() {
pub struct MultiSigned<T: BorshSerialize + BorshDeserialize> {
    /// Arbitrary data to be signed
    pub data: T,
    /// The signature of the data
    pub sigs: Vec<common::Signature>,

pub struct MultiSignedEthEvent {
    /// Address and voting power of the signing validators
    pub signers: Vec<(Address, FractionalVotingPower)>,
    /// Events as signed by validators
    pub event: MultiSigned<(EthereumEvent, BlockHeight)>,

pub enum ProtocolTxType {

This vote extensions transaction will be signed by the block proposer. Validators will check this transaction and the validity of the new votes as part of ProcessProposal, this includes checking:

  • signatures
  • that votes are really from active validators
  • the calculation of backed voting power

It is also checked that each vote extension came from the previous round, requiring validators to sign over the Namada block height with their vote extension. Furthermore, the vote extensions included by the block proposer should have at least 2 / 3 of the total voting power of the previous round backing it. Otherwise the block proposer would not have passed the FinalizeBlock phase of the last round. These checks are to prevent censorship of events from validators by the block proposer.

In FinalizeBlock, we derive a second transaction (the "state update" transaction) from the vote extensions transaction that:

  • calculates the required changes to /eth_msgs storage and applies it
  • acts on any /eth_msgs/$msg_hash where seen is going from false to true (e.g. appropriately minting wrapped Ethereum assets)

This state update transaction will not be recorded on chain but will be deterministically derived from the vote extensions transaction, which is recorded on chain. All ledger nodes will derive and apply this transaction to their own local blockchain state, whenever they receive a block with a vote extensions transaction. This transaction cannot require a protocol signature as even non-validator full nodes of Namada will be expected to do this.

The value of /eth_msgs/$msg_hash/seen will also indicate if the event has been acted on on the Namada side. The appropriate transfers of tokens to the given user will be included on chain free of charge and requires no additional actions from the end user.

Namada Validity Predicates

There will be three internal accounts with associated native validity predicates:

  • #EthSentinel - whose validity predicate will verify the inclusion of events from Ethereum. This validity predicate will control the /eth_msgs storage subspace.
  • #EthBridge - the storage of which will contain ledgers of balances for wrapped Ethereum assets (ERC20 tokens) structured in a "multitoken" hierarchy
  • #EthBridgeEscrow which will hold in escrow wrapped Namada tokens which have been sent to Ethereum.

Transferring assets from Ethereum to Namada

Wrapped ERC20

The "transfer" transaction mints the appropriate amount to the corresponding multitoken balance key for the receiver, based on the specifics of a TransferToNamada Ethereum event.

fn main() {
pub struct EthAddress(pub [u8; 20]);

/// Represents Ethereum assets on the Ethereum blockchain
pub enum EthereumAsset {
    /// An ERC20 token and the address of its contract

/// An event transferring some kind of value from Ethereum to Namada
pub struct TransferToNamada {
    /// Quantity of ether in the transfer
    pub amount: Amount,
    /// Address on Ethereum of the asset
    pub asset: EthereumAsset,
    /// The Namada address receiving wrapped assets on Namada
    pub receiver: Address,

For 10 DAI i.e. ERC20(0x6b175474e89094c44da98b954eedeac495271d0f) to atest1v4ehgw36xue5xvf5xvuyzvpjx5un2v3k8qeyvd3cxdqns32p89rrxd6xx9zngvpegccnzs699rdnnt

                += 10

Namada tokens

Any wrapped Namada tokens being redeemed from Ethereum must have an equivalent amount of the native token held in escrow by #EthBridgeEscrow. The protocol transaction should simply make a transfer from #EthBridgeEscrow to the receiver for the appropriate amount and asset.

Transferring from Namada to Ethereum

To redeem wrapped Ethereum assets, a user should make a transaction to burn their wrapped tokens, which the #EthBridge validity predicate will accept.

Once this burn is done, it is incumbent on the end user to request an appropriate "proof" of the transaction. This proof must be submitted to the appropriate Ethereum smart contract by the user to redeem their native Ethereum assets. This also means all Ethereum gas costs are the responsibility of the end user.

The proofs to be used will be custom bridge headers that are calculated deterministically from the block contents, including messages sent by Namada and possibly validator set updates. They will be designed for maximally efficient Ethereum decoding and verification.

For each block on Namada, validators must submit the corresponding bridge header signed with a special secp256k1 key as part of their vote extension. Validators must reject votes which do not contain correctly signed bridge headers. The finalized bridge header with aggregated signatures will appear in the next block as a protocol transaction. Aggregation of signatures is the responsibility of the next block proposer.

The bridge headers need only be produced when the proposed block contains requests to transfer value over the bridge to Ethereum. The exception is when validator sets change. Since the Ethereum smart contract should accept any header signed by bridge header signed by 2 / 3 of the staking validators, it needs up-to-date knowledge of:

  • The current validators' public keys
  • The current stake of each validator

This means the at the end of every Namada epoch, a special transaction must be sent to the Ethereum contract detailing the new public keys and stake of the new validator set. This message must also be signed by at least 2 / 3 of the current validators as a "transfer of power". It is to be included in validators vote extensions as part of the bridge header. Signing an invalid validator transition set will be consider a slashable offense.

Due to asynchronicity concerns, this message should be submitted well in advance of the actual epoch change, perhaps even at the beginning of each new epoch. Bridge headers to ethereum should include the current Namada epoch so that the smart contract knows how to verify the headers. In short, there is a pipelining mechanism in the smart contract.

Such a message is not prompted by any user transaction and thus will have to be carried out by a bridge relayer. Once the transfer of power message is on chain, any time afterwards a Namada bridge process may take it to craft the appropriate message to the Ethereum smart contracts.

The details on bridge relayers are below in the corresponding section.

Signing incorrect headers is considered a slashable offense. Anyone witnessing an incorrect header that is signed may submit a complaint (a type of transaction) to initiate slashing of the validator who made the signature.

Namada tokens

Mints of a wrapped Namada token on Ethereum (including NAM, Namada's native token) will be represented by a data type like:

fn main() {
struct MintWrappedNam {
    /// The Namada address owning the token
    owner: NamadaAddress,
    /// The address on Ethereum receiving the wrapped tokens
    receiver: EthereumAddress,
    /// The address of the token to be wrapped 
    token: NamadaAddress,
    /// The number of wrapped Namada tokens to mint on Ethereum
    amount: Amount,

If a user wishes to mint a wrapped Namada token on Ethereum, they must submit a transaction on Namada that:

  • stores MintWrappedNam on chain somewhere
  • sends the correct amount of Namada token to #EthBridgeEscrow

Just as in redeeming Ethereum assets above, it is incumbent on the end user to request an appropriate proof of the transaction. This proof must be submitted to the appropriate Ethereum smart contract by the user. The corresponding amount of wrapped NAM tokens will be transferred to the receiver on Ethereum by the smart contract.

Namada Bridge Relayers

Validator changes must be turned into a message that can be communicated to smart contracts on Ethereum. These smart contracts need this information to verify proofs of actions taken on Namada.

Since this is protocol level information, it is not user prompted and thus should not be the responsibility of any user to submit such a transaction. However, any user may choose to submit this transaction anyway.

This necessitates a Namada node whose job it is to submit these transactions on Ethereum at the conclusion of each Namada epoch. This node is called the Designated Relayer. In theory, since this message is publicly available on the blockchain, anyone can submit this transaction, but only the Designated Relayer will be directly compensated by Namada.

All Namada validators will have an option to serve as bridge relayer and the Namada ledger will include a process that does the relaying. Since all Namada validators are running Ethereum full nodes, they can monitor that the message was relayed correctly by the Designated Relayer.

During the FinalizeBlock call in the ledger, if the epoch changes, a flag should be set alerting the next block proposer that they are the Designated Relayer for this epoch. If their message gets accepted by the Ethereum state inclusion onto Namada, new NAM tokens will be minted to reward them. The reward amount shall be a protocol parameter that can be changed via governance. It should be high enough to cover necessary gas fees.

Ethereum Smart Contracts

The set of Ethereum contracts should perform the following functions:

  • Verify bridge header proofs from Namada so that Namada messages can be submitted to the contract.
  • Verify and maintain evolving validator sets with corresponding stake and public keys.
  • Emit log messages readable by Namada
  • Handle ICS20-style token transfer messages appropriately with escrow & unescrow on the Ethereum side
  • Allow for message batching

Furthermore, the Ethereum contracts will whitelist ETH and tokens that flow across the bridge as well as ensure limits on transfer volume per epoch.

An Ethereum smart contract should perform the following steps to verify a proof from Namada:

  1. Check the epoch included in the proof.
  2. Look up the validator set corresponding to said epoch.
  3. Verify that the signatures included amount to at least 2 / 3 of the total stake.
  4. Check the validity of each signature.

If all the above verifications succeed, the contract may affect the appropriate state change, emit logs, etc.

Starting the bridge

Before the bridge can start running, some storage may need to be initialized in Namada.

Resources which may be helpful: